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阿根廷接管工廠運動的歷史與前景 The History and Prospect of Workers’ Self-Management Movement in Argentina. By 萬毓澤  Wan Yu-Ze

阿根廷接管工廠運動的歷史與前景 The History and Prospect of Workers’ Self -Management Movement in Argentina

Speaker: 萬毓澤  Wan Yu-Ze

Date: 2015/04/29

After Argentina’s serious economic crisis in 2001-03, a large number of factories were taken over, and they borrowed a slogan from the Brazilian landless peasant movement, which is: “occupation, resistance, production!” (ocupar, resistir, producir!). Under the taking over and self-management of the workers, enterprises that is recovered by workers (“empresas recuperadas por sus trabajadores (ERT)” regained their track and achieved remarkable success gradually. The movement of taking over the factory ranges from different industries such as food, steel, textiles, plastics, glass, rubber, design, transportation, restaurants, medical industries, and even five-star hotels.

Majority of workers form their cooperatives, with a democratic process in making decisions. Although the movement did not receive the support of the Argentine general trade union, it received the support or sympathy from different community organizations, socialist groups, radical left-wing parties, and scholars. This lecture will briefly introduce the historical background, dynamic, institutional characteristics and challenges faced by Argentina in taking over the movement, and understand it from the broader history of “workers’ control”.

阿根廷2001-03年爆發嚴重經濟危機後,出現大量的接管工廠運動,並從巴西無土地農民運動借來了口號:「佔領、抵抗、生產!」(ocupar, resistir, producir!)。在工人的接管與自治管理下,一家又一家「由工人復甦的企業」(empresas recuperadas por sus trabajadores,ERT)重新步上軌道,取得驚人的成就。接管工廠的運動遍及各產業,如食品、鋼鐵、紡織、塑膠、玻璃、橡膠、設計、運輸、餐廳、醫療產業,甚至包括五星級旅館。

大多數員工組成合作社,以民主討論的方式進行決策。工人的接管工廠運動雖然並未獲得阿根廷總工會的支持,但卻得到許多社區組織、社運團體、激進左翼政黨、學者的支援或同情。這次的演講將簡要介紹阿根廷接管工廠運動的歷史背景、動力、制度特徵、面臨的挑戰,並從更廣闊的「工人控制」(workers’ control)的歷史中來理解阿根廷的接管工廠運動。